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We invite you to use the Women in STEM Knowledge Center (WSKC) to find information resources specific to the issues and practices of advancing women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math.

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“Thinking inside of the box”: retention of women in engineering

The paper describes an effort at Penn State Altoona to address the issue of low retention of women in science and engineering. This effort also was designed to contribute to the long-term advancement of women in these fields throughout their careers. The approach taken is to challenge women students to recognize their beliefs and self perceptions regarding their relationship with engineering and thus provide them with the opportunity for positive change. As a consequence, their actions have...

“Naming the Complexity”: Women’s Experience and the Holistic Assessment of Technology

This paper focuses on a little known account of the impact of technology on women, which was authored by the German feminist Louise Otto (1819-1895). Otto was a journalist, poet, novelist, social activitst, and an astute observer and a skillful rhetorician. Her book "The Life of Women in the German Empire" (1876) provides a model of an holistic approach to the assessment of technology and furnishes guidance as to how we can grasp yet still manage the complexity involved in the...

“It kind of chose me”: Agency and Influence in Women’s Decisions to Major in Engineering

This paper explores the attraction of students to engineering in a private liberal arts college for women. The authors investigate how expressions of agency are embedded in narratives that often explicitly underscore the influence of others.

‘Nuts and Bolts and People’: Gender-Troubled Engineering Identities

This ethnographic study of building design engineers uses interviews with engineers to explore the definition of engineering as "nuts and bolts and people", addressing the two aspects of engineering: the technical and the social. The two are qualitatively blended together to explore where the line between these two aspects occurs.

Zero to 36% in Thirty Years – A History of Female Undergraduates at Caltech

This study examines the steady increase in female undergraduate enrollment at Caltech. The nature of this increase, the driving factors behind it, and the portion of the female population in engineering at the Institute over time are investigated and compared to both total Institute population and national norms. The author hopes to quantify the enrollment gains for undergraduate women at Caltech, to determine whether the increases have been homogenous across fields of study, and also to...

Young Women, Sports, and Science

This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. Data from the nationally representative High School and Beyond (HSB) and National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) were used to explore the relationship between involvement in sports and success in science for high school aged women. Findings suggest that sports participation provides a unique resource for young women especially with regard to science attitudes and...

Young Women in Science: Impact of a Three-Year Program on Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Science

Addressing the factors that discourage high school girls from pursuing careers in science, this intervention targeted young women from rural Appalachia, urging them to pursue scientific careers in drug and alcohol research. This three-year program, for 49 young women entering ninth grade in 12 southeastern Kentucky counties, included a summer camp, Saturday Academies (educational seminars held in their communities), and mentoring by university faculty and community leaders.

Young girls’ arithmetic and spatial skills: The distal and proximal roles of family socioeconomics and home learning experiences

This study addressed girls’ early numerical and spatial reasoning skills, within the context of a critical environment in which these cognitive skills develop, namely their homes. Specifically, proximal links between distal family socioeconomic conditions and first-grade girls’ arithmetic and spatial skills were examined. The proximal roles of two factors were considered: the general learning characteristics of girls’ homes, and the kinds of math and spatial learning activities in which girls...

You Can Be Anything – Women and Technology Video

This paper discusses a video produced by the Center for Women and Information Technology (CWIT) at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) and funded through the National Science Foundation. CWIT sought to develop a video that would use the power of media to give young people, particularly girls and young women, a very positive impression of the career opportunities for women that are now available in all fields. Further, the video would focus on the importance of learning about...

WSKC Connections Newsletter: Thought Leader Interview Series

The WSKC Connections Newsletter is a quarterly publication for anyone interested in news and resources that support the gender equity in STEM community. In each newsletter, a thought leader in the STEM community is interviewed by WEPAN members to gather their insights into their career and current work.

Workshop Classroom Border Crossings: Incorporating Feminist and Liberative Pedagogies in your CSET Classroom

This paper describes a workshop in which participants explore the use of feminist and liberative pedagogies in CSET classrooms. These pedagogies are founded on the ideals of social justice and democracy. The workshop will include discussions of classroom management strategies, critiques and redesign of the engineering process, and assessment and evaluation of student learning. Participants will leave the workshop with a list of concrete ideas for implementing feminist and liberative...

Workplace Environments that Hinder and Assist the Career Progression of Women in Information Technology

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the workplace environment characteristics that hinder and assist the career progression of women in information technology. The findings revealed that the workplace environment and culture characteristics identified by the women in information technology have both positive and negative aspects. This study examined both the positive and negative roles that workplace environment and culture play in the career development of women in...

Workplace Environment is Prime Reason Women Leave Engineering

The article from SWE Magazine summarizes a study titled "Stemming the Tide: Why Women Leave Engineering" made possible by a National Science Foundation grant. The study disclosed that women with engineering degrees leave their field because of inhospitable work environment. The money and effort channeled to encourage women to pursue engineering are reportedly undermined by the workplace culture.

Workplace Culture that Hinders and Assists the Career Development of Women in Information Technology

This study examines both the positive and negative roles that workplace culture plays in the career development of women in information technology (IT). The literature has described the IT workplace culture as having certain characteristics that are unique to the industry and unique to White male culture.

Work-Life: Prevalence, Utilization, and Benefits

A 7 page overview of statistics related to work-life balance, gathered from multiple organizations and government agencies. Includes statistics on flexibility in working arrangements, child care, elder care, dual-career couples, and benefits to organizations. Excellent information for benchmarking or for highlights for presentations on work-life balance. For industry and the workforce.

Work-Life Spillover and Job Satisfaction of Married/Partnered Faculty Members

This study analyzes questionnaire data gathered from married or partnered, tenured and tenure-track faculty at a research university to identify personal, institutional, and nonwork factors that explain perceptions about work-life spillover and, secondly, the relationship of spillover, personal, institutional, and nonwork factors to overall job satisfaction. A combination of personal and environmental climate variables explained 48% of the variance in work-life spillover and 60% of the...

Work in progress: A STEM educational outreach day for young females

This paper discusses an outreach day at Duke University called FEMMES (females excelling more in math, engineering, and science). FEMMES is an annual free, one-day event, which provides an exciting, hands-on experience for 4th-6th grade girls to encourage them to further explore their potential in these fields. To assess the program's effectiveness, surveys were completed by participants before and after the event.

Work in progress- a study of how real world engineering experience can affect women's academic career

Growing evidence has suggested that industry-sponsored project experience, where the student is paid, can provide students with a real-world perspective that enhances the students' academic experience. This experience is particularly valuable for female students because women may have less real-world exposure to applications in their chosen career path compared to their male counterparts. Sometimes internship experiences can be a negative experience for female students. The working...

Work in progress — Women in Computing Honors Course

This paper presents the author's experience in teaching an Honors course, Women in Computing, that was offered for the first time in Fall 2009. The course is cross listed with Women's Studies and provides Honors students with interdisciplinary experience. This course provides an opportunity for students to learn about pioneering women of computing and their contribution into computing field, as well as modern trends and modern gender issues in computer science. The course also...

Work in progress — Tracking the success of African American women undergraduates majoring in engineering

This paper discusses the progress of African American women toward undergraduate degrees in any of the engineering disciplines. This work in progress examines the following questions: 1) What are the women's reasons for selecting engineering? 2) Having chosen to remain in engineering, what strategies are assisting them in their efforts to succeed and excel? And 3) What are the issues that are of special concern to them as African American women who have chosen a field of study that has...

Work in progress — Flexibility and career opportunity as motivation for women selecting industrial engineering majors

This work in progress explores qualitatively why women choose to major in industrial engineering and remain there. Through two focus groups with undergraduate women industrial engineering majors at an historically black university and a predominantly white institution, authors found the follwing primary themes: students chose their institution for its reputation; students chose to major in industrial engineering because they believed it a) was less technical and more like business, b) had a...

Work in progress — A practical model for achieving gender parity in undergraduate computing: Change the system, not the student

This paper presents a systemic change model of undergraduate computing for accomplishing gender parity. Rather than view women as needing to be modified or repaired to fit the system, this model advocates changing the system to fit the needs of a wider range of students. Changing the system is a more sustainable approach to creating gender parity than providing extra support to students with less experience or background or students who are less likely to feel that people like themselves...

Work in Progress – Taking One for the Team: Goal Orientation and Gender-Correlated Task Division

This paper discusses assessments of student behavior in first semester design experiences which suggest that early team-based design projects can promote a team performance goal orientation that undermines students' learning goals. In particular, researchers find that gender-correlated division of work can easily and unconsciously occur in these teams and that performance-oriented teams may be more likely to undermine womens' learning goals then mens' learning goals. Authors...

Work In Progress – Do Women Score Lower Than Men on Computer Engineering Exams?

This paper examines whether women earn lower exam scores than men and whether Dweck's model of self-theories explains the difference. Dweck proposed two categories for individuals' beliefs about intelligence: incremental theories and entity theories. Dweck found that women are more likely to be entity theorists than men. This study found that the difference between exam averages between women and men, and between entity and incremental theorists were not statistically significant.

Work in progress - women in technology: An initiative to reach females in rural Wisconsin

This paper describes Women in Technology (WIT), a collaboration program model providing opportunities to explore and pursue STEM education and careers to increase and sustain the economic vitality of rural Wisconsin. Agricultural, manufacturing, health and service industries in rural Wisconsin are increasingly requiring more technically adept and trained employees. As women are under represented in STEM careers it is therefore critical to educate women about careers that create a...

Work in progress - Why many smart women leave engineering: A preliminary study of how engineering students form career goals

This study examined how undergraduate engineering students form career goals. Preliminary analysis of the qualitative data provided evidence that for both men and women, out-of class experiences such as internships, design projects, and participation in student organizations tended to increase engagement and commitment to engineering as a profession.

Work in progress - using case studies to increase the retention of female doctoral students in STEM Fields

This paper discusses part of the NSF funded project, CareerWISE, which employs internet-delivered resilience training to increase the persistence of Women Ph.D. Students in STEM Fields. The differences between the types of case studies traditionally used in science and engineering courses and the CareerWISE case studies are discussed, along with the plans for evaluating and integrating the cases with the other pieces of the CareerWISE project.

Work in progress - the effect of engineering matriculation status on major selection

This study focuses on how the approach to engineering matriculation affects choice of major. Using the eight institutions represented in the Multiple-Institution Database for Investigating Engineering Longitudinal Development, we compared the majors at matriculation and at the third semester of 1) students who are directly admitted to a discipline 2) students who enter mandatory first-year engineering programs and 3) those who enter colleges of engineering without specifying a major...

Work in progress - reexamining the problem of engineering persistence for African-American female students

This paper describes a mix-method study designed to examine the experiences and factors that influence African-American female students' decision to leave engineering degree programs for other academic majors. Using the Students Leaving Engineering Instrument developed by the Assessing Women in Engineering (AWE) project, data is being collected from female students who entered Prairie View A&M University, a historically black university, as freshman engineering, computer science or...

Work in progress - providing support and leadership experiences for women at the University of Texas at El Paso through a Women in Science and Engineering program

This paper discusses the Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). Since its inception in 2001, the WiSE program has focused on providing support for female undergraduates at UTEP in the form of semester stipends and community/university outreach activities. This paper discusses the WiSE initiative, including membership profiles, retention and graduation rates, current and future outreach activities, and plans for institutionalization.

Work in progress - gender parity success in the Civil Engineering department at Kuwait University

This paper discusses a pilot study investigating the local factors contributing to the Civil Engineering Department gender parity at Kuwait University. A survey of 104 undergraduates revealed that 64.4 percent of the study sample thought that there was inequality in treatment between genders, of them 56.7 percent thought that males were treated better. The study also found that females perceive Civil Engineering as a very interesting field.

Work in progress - gender and preconceptions of undergraduate computer science

This paper discusses a qualitative study of pre-major undergraduates enrolled in an introductory computer science course. Analysis of ongoing interviews suggests potential themes in student perceptions of computer science, its attractive and unattractive features, and the sources of these preconceptions. The paper also examines the effectiveness of recruitment programs in challenging popular, negative stereotypes of computer science.

Work in progress - engineering students' disciplinary choices: Do race and gender matter?

This paper explores which engineering disciplines are most effective at attracting undergraduates from various race and gender groups at matriculation and graduation. Women and men choose different disciplines within engineering at matriculation. Industrial Engineering is notable for attracting women and men, and the largest disciplines, Electrical and Mechanical, have the largest enrollment gender gap. Funded by NSF GSE under award #0734062 & #0734085.

Work in progress - effect of climate and pedagogy on persistence of women in engineering programs

This paper seeks to determine how climate and pedagogy affect the persistence of women in undergraduate engineering programs via a longitudinal, multi-institutional, and multivariate study. Authors focus on the nine institutions of the southeastern university and college coalition for engineering education from 1987 to 2004. The study uses three related data sources: the multiple-institution database for investigating engineering longitudinal development (MIDFIELD), two climate surveys, and...

Work in progress - A mixed-methods study of the effects of first-year project pedagogies on the motivation, retention, and career plans of women in engineering

This paper compares two first-year engineering course project pedagogies to identify approaches that enhance the likelihood of women continuing in engineering majors and entering engineering careers. Specifically, authors compare the problem-based learning (PBL) model to a more general experiential learning approach centered on the engineering design process, referred to here as the traditional engineering design model (TED). Authors hypothesize that the PBL model, with extensive faculty...

Work in progress - a design guide to retain female (and male) students in engineering

This paper presents a Four-Domain Development Diagram (4DDD) in an attempt to enable a systems approach to managing all the factors that contribute to retention. This diagram makes explicit the connections between the response factors in the learning environment, including motivation, interest, and ultimately retention. Authors report a lower overall net attrition rate (male and female) from freshman year from ~50% to ~20%, seeing a net influx of female students, from numbers as low as 2 of...

Work and Family Conflict in Academic Science: Patterns and Predictors Among Women and Men in Research Universities

This article addresses work-family conflict as reported among women and men academic scientists in data systematically collected across fields in nine US research institutions. The findings have implications for understandings of how marriage and children, senior compared to junior academic rank, and departmental climates shape work-family conflict among women and men in US academic science.

Women’s Perceptions of the Climate in Engineering Technology Programs

Study focusing specifically on women in Engineering Technology comparing their learning preferences to their perceptions of how their engineering programs support their preferences. Authors contrast masculine and feminine learning syles and cultural expectations and relate them to curricula, teaching styles and classroom performance. Research questions included value of competition, faculty support, recognition, peer support, and inclusion.

Women’s Manufacturing Workshop Series that Supports Inclusiveness and Skill Building in Undergraduate Engineering Education

This paper discusess a Women’s Manufacturing Workshop (WMW) series which was piloted during the 2002-03 academic year through a partnership between the Women in Engineering Program (WIEP) and the Integrated Teaching and Learning Laboratory (ITLL). WMW aimed to provide women students a context for pursuing engineering through acquisition of knowledge and skills applicable to the design-build process in a low-risk setting. This paper discusses the effects of the WMW on the students, including...

Women’s Health and Women’s Leadership in Academic Medicine: Hitting the Same Glass Ceiling?

The term “glass ceiling” refers to women’s lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women’s health. This paper discusses (1) the historical medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women’s health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious...

Women: Support Factors and Persistence in Engineering

This paper discusses the factors that support women in engineering, as well as the factors that attract women to and help them to persist in a career in engineering. The methods consisted of a search of related research to identify factors followed by qualitative interviews with program persisters and switchers. The most frequently cited factors were: faculty support, class environment, department environment, attraction to another discipline, parental encouragement, and self- confidence.

Women-Centric Senior Projects for Females in the Computational Sciences Fields

This paper presents an approach to teaching a Senior Project course in Computer Science in a way that allows women to educate themselves about health, politics, and other social and well-being issues while at the same time fulfilling the computational, mathematical, and scientific requirements of the course. The Senior Project is a capstone project where students integrate their scientific as well as their software design and implementation knowledge to a real-world problem.

Women, work and Web 2.0: a case study New Technology, Work and Employment Women, work and Web 2.0

This article examines the opportunities and obstacles facing female information technology (IT) professionals holding ‘hybrid’ or ‘mixed skill’ positions in the Web 2.0 era. The author presents data from a case study to argue that choices of career pathways, technical skill set, age and experience are factors that affect career progression and job satisfaction in a masculinist culture of computing.

Women, Science, and Academia: Graduate Education and Careers

Using data from a national survey of doctoral students in science and engineering, this article addresses three central questions: (1) What is happening to women in scientific careers and what is the role of graduate education? (2) What are the implications for the study of gender? (3) Where can we intervene, and how?

Women, research and universities: excellence without gender bias

This 30-page report from the League of European Research Universities (LERU) examines the factors involved in gender inequality among women in research. The report highlights four well-known and -evidenced challenges regarding women in research. According to the report, more women than men drop out of research careers, resulting in an underrepresentation of women in leading positions, a loss of talent for society and a lack of diversity in the workplace, each of which presents a potential...

Women, Minorities Rare on Science, Engineering Faculties

This one-page article summarizes the findings of Donna Nelson's comprehensive study of female and minority representation in science and engineering faculty in the United States. Women were underrepresented, even when compared with the percentage of women earning PhDs. Minority women were even more underrepresented. The assistant professor rank had the highest percentage of women faculty. This is a useful summary of the key findings of the main report.

Women, Men, and Academic Performance in Science and Engineering: The Gender Difference in Undergraduate Grade Point Averages

Using longitudinal and multi-institutional data, this article takes an innovative approach in its analyses of gender differences in grade point averages (GPA) among undergraduate students in biology, the physical sciences, and engineering over a 16-year period. Assessed are hypotheses about (a) the gender ecology of science/engineering and (b) the structural advantage of the presence of programs for women.

Women, information technology and ‘waves of optimism’: Australian evidence on ‘mixed-skill’ jobs

Drawing on evidence from Australia, this paper highlights limitations to optimism about the increased engagement of women in information technology, questioning the potential for women in mixed-skill jobs in computing and multimedia organizations.

Women, Food, and CFCs: A Technological Literacy Course Based On the History of Refrigeration

This paper describes “Engineering, the Human Enterprise,” a technological literacy course which was first offered at the University of Massachusetts Amherst in the fall of 1997. The course treats the common household technology of refrigeration from historical, technical, and environmental points of view. Following a review of domestic American housekeeping and the problems associated with food preservation, the history of the natural ice industry in the U. S. is traced from its beginnings in...

Women, Engineering and Research: Providing Choice and Balance

This paper discusses a number of primary obstacles that females have encountered in engineering. Some initiatives on the proposal based on the statistics survey to support women in engineering will also present and share among the academic community; it is hoped that the measures proposed will be of practical use for other academic communities who are affected by the under-representation of women. The overarching aim is that potential research insights from women will be encouraged and not...

Women's Selection of Quantitative Undergraduate Field of Study: Direct and Indirect Influences

This 19 page report proposed a Structural Equation Model (SEM) examining two suggested strategies to increase women's share of mathematical / scientific - quantitative - degrees. The predominant factor in the model was the number of math and science courses taken in high school. Other factors were the selection of a qualitative field of study by the sophomore year of high school and background characteristics and attitudes. Population included 30,000 sophomores in 1980 who were tested...

Women's Participation in Science Has Increased, But Agencies Need To Do More To Ensure Compliance with Title IX

This report addresses how the Dept. of Energy, Dept. of Education, NASA and the NSF ensure that grant recipient institutions comply with Title IX in math, engineering, and science, what data show about women's participation in these fields, and what promising practices exist to promote their participation.

Women's experiences in the STEM community college transfer pathway

This study examined the experiences of thirty women using the community college transfer pathway to earn four-year STEM degrees. Participants were examined once while finishing at community college and again one semester later. Results indicated that after transferring to a four-year institution, the majority of women persisted in STEM majors despite many barriers. Finding a helpful professor or advisor and cotransfer support boosted belongingness and contributed to persistence. Funded by...

Women's Engineering Conference Focuses on Life-Work Balance

The news article reports that the United States Navy sponsored the Society of Women Engineers (SWE) conference November 6, 2008, held in Baltimore. Keynote speaker was Navy Capt. Paz B. Gomez, P.E. Her speech discussed the importance of finding work-life balance and included tips on how to do so. The military recognizes the importance of recruiting and retaining women who can balance their work and personal lives, and supports efforts tied to industry to help inform women in being successful...

Women's Employment in the Sciences in Europe

This paper discusses the current situation of women in scientific education and employment in European Union and applicant countries which shows patterns of vertical and horizontal segregation. Yet the data that underpin these analyses are patchy, and despite some efforts to reuse available data, there is a clear need for new data, an effort that is gathering momentum in the European Commission (EC) and other pan-European bodies. Here, the author focuses particularly on a recent rationale in...

Women's Career Development: Can Theoretically Derived Variables Predict Persistence in Engineering Majors?

This 11-page paper reports on a study to test the prediction value of several theoretically derived variables as they affect student persistence in engineering. The factors with potential effects on student persistence discussed in the study include ability, self-efficacy, expectancy-valence, interest congruence, barriers, and support. The quantitative study itself assessed the interaction between these variables and found that there was little gender difference in the persistence of the...

Women Technology Leaders: Gender Issues in Higher Education Information Technology

In this journal article, three women higher education chief information officers (CIOs) provide their perspectives, interpretations, and experiences regarding the gendered organization of higher education IT. Women working in higher education IT organizations and those seeking leadership positions in these organizations face a double challenge in overcoming the traditionally male-dominated environments of higher education and IT. This research, being unique in specifically studying women CIOs...

Women Swell Ranks As Middle Managers, But Are Scarce at Top

Newspaper article in Wall Steeet Journal reports that although women are represented in lower level and mid-level positions, the number of women in top management is still dismally low. Women of color are even more underrepresented. The article looks at the reasons for this under representation, and suggests changes that must occur to change the situation. The author suggests some of the responsibility be shouldered by the women themselves and not just the companies. Of interest to women in...

Women STEM Faculty at Ohio State: Resource Allocation and Department Climate

This 12-page paper from the 2012 WEPAN National Conference examines two studies from Ohio State University's Comprehensive Equity at Ohio State (CEOS) effort, which focuses on retention and career progression for women faculty in the STEM disciplines. The first study examines four measures that reflect conditions of employment and the second examines faculty perceptions of their working environment. The data show that the University has done well at equilibrating men’s and women’s access...

Women Scientists in Laboratory Culture: Perspectives from an Academic Scientist in Training

This is a personal statement and testimony from Diane Hoffman-Kim, a recent mother and postdoctoral researcher. She describes her experiences and how the woman in the lab does not fit the norm.

Women Scientists in Industry: A Winning Formula for Companies

A small but powerful study done on women scientists in industry. In-depth interviews were done with 30 highly successful women scientists working in industry. Different aspects of their lives and careers were explored, such as the lack of information they were given as graduate students about careers, the unwelcome attitude from academia, and barriers from the corporate world in their advancement. Successful strategies for women scientists such as networking and mentoring are explored, and...

Women Science Majors: What Makes a Difference in Persistence after Graduation?

This article examines factors related to persistence in science/mathematics of women science or mathematics majors. Cohort, major, number of undergraduate science courses, parental encouragement, and career advice from faculty were key factors associated with persistence in science/mathematics after college.

Women on the Margin of Engineering: Acceptable and Unacceptable Theses

This paper examines the phenomenon of under-representation in engineering—what our faculty ought to look like, why it might reasonably be obliged to look a certain way, and how any cosmetic faculty prescriptions (or proscriptions) might entail changes in the performance of both faculties and students.

Women of Color in Technology

IBM presentation discussing status of women of color in IT in the workplace. Highlights opportunities in IT and barriers women may face in their advancement. Includes pragmatic success strategies and what employers expect of employees.

Women of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)

Treating women as a homogeneous group obscures important racial and ethnic differences among women in STEM. This chapter focuses on the experiences of women of color in science and engineering and highlights the importance of addressing intersecting identities among women.

Women Matter 2012: Making the Breakthrough

This report from McKinsey & Company, an international management consulting firm, is the fifth in the Women Matter series and is part of McKinsey's global research program into women's representation in business. The report presents findings from qualitative and quantitative surveys and interviews with senior executives to benchmark the gender diversity programs of 235 European companies. According to the report, results indicate that the vast majority of companies devote...

Women in Technology: Maximizing Talent, Minimizing Barriers

This 44 page report examines women in the high-tech and technical fields today, and makes comparisons to earlier reports related to job satisfaction and barriers to advancement in the technology fields for women. The authors focus on what improvements have been made by companies to retain women and what more needs to be done to prevent talented women from leaving the profession. The authors address two areas of concern- supervisory relationships and fairness/having a voice in the company as...

Women in Technology: Attitudes, Perceptions, and Beliefs Regarding their Majors and Intended Careers

This paper discusses Women in Technology, a student group formed at Purdue University to promote leadership, networking, outreach, and mentoring among women, and to provide them with a sense of community. This paper presents an overview of the organization; discusses the results of a survey of the members’ attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions regarding their majors and intended careers, foregrounding the voices of the participants; and proposes strategies for better positioning the...

Women in Science: International Perspectives

This article discusses the role women have played in the history of science, the prejudice and disadvantage encountered in the course of their careers, and the implementation of policies that are intended to ease that 'choices' that many women face.

Women in Science and Engineering: Theory, Practice, and Policy in Programs

Using data collected from the universe of university programs that are targeted to graduate-level women in science and engineering, this article takes an innovative approach to the study of programs. It does so by analyzing the patterns in these programs' definitions of the problem/issue of women in science and engineering; perspectives on the meanings of gender; solutions posed as they correspond to definitions and perspectives; and relationship of the programs to the organizational...

Women in Science and Engineering Building Community Online

This article explores the constructs of online community and online social support and discusses a naturalistic case study of a public, unmoderated, online discussion group dedicated to issues of interest to women in science and engineering. The benefits of affiliation with OURNET (a pseudonym) were explored through participant observation over a 4-year period, telephone interviews with 21 subscribers, and content analysis of e-mail messages posted to the discussion group during a 125-day...

Women in Power: Networking On & Off Campus

This paper discusses networking opportunities for women faculty both on their home campuses as well as at technical meetings. Women faculty in power engineering from three different schools, Mississippi State, Texas A&M and Missouri-Rolla, discuss their activities on campus including both formal and informal networking opportunities for women faculty. Additionally they discuss how activities at IEEE Power Engineering Society meetings provide them with off-campus networking opportunities...

Women in physics: A tale of limits

This 4-page article documents results from the Global Survey of Physicists of 15,000 physicists worldwide, carried out by the American Institute of Physics (AIP). The article summarizes significant differences between men and women physicists in access to career-advancing resources and opportunities. According to the article, the low representation of women in physics is a well-known problem, but differences in the resources and opportunities men and women encounter comprise another challenge...

Women in Physics in the United States: A Progress Report

Two page summary of the status of women in physics that relates areas of concern/improvement as reflected in statistics. For example, less than one-fourth of physics bachelor’s degrees are awarded to women while they make up nearly half of high school physics students. Despite their high participation in high school physics they are a smaller percentage of the group of students that takes the Advanced Placement (AP) physics exam. And, women are approximately twice as likely to have a spouse...

Women in Nanotechnology (WIN): A Mentoring Case Study for Students in Community Colleges in the Chicago Region

The UIC Women in Nanotechnology (WIN) project supports community college students interested in nanoscale science and technology careers. This presentation will present progress towards achieving the recruitment and retention short-term goals. In addition recommendations from student participants, mentors, and program coordinators are provided for future improvements or program replication.

Women in Male-Dominated Career and Technical Education Programs at Community Colleges: Barriers to Participation and Success

Using interviews with women in traditionally male-dominated career and technical education, this study examines the experiences of women in career and technical education (CTE) in community colleges, and concludes that women students experience a lack of emotional and institutional support and gender bias in the classroom. The female students find a success by maintaining a sense of resilience despite the discrimination. Implications of research and practice are included.

Women in Industrial Engineering: Stereotypes, Persistence, and Perspectives

This research interrogates prevailing assumptions about industrial engineering to explore why undergraduate women are drawn to industrial engineering over other engineering majors. Results indicate that industrial engineering is the only engineering major that gains women and men from the third semester through six-year graduation and among all race-gender combinations (except Black men). Women in focus groups reveal that they are drawn to IE for a myriad of social factors including: warmth,...

Women in Health Care & Bioscience Leadership State of the Knowledge Report: Bioscience, Academic Medicine, and Nursing

This 31 page report examines women's representation in bioscience and healthcare, and compares it to women in the academic sciences field. The report is divided into four parts: gender differences in the scientific pipeline (education), gender gaps in the workforce, gender differences in career paths of academic research careers, and gender differences in nursing. For women in healthcare and bioscience teaching and industry.

Women in Graduate Engineering: Is Differential Dropout a Factor in Their Underrepresentation Among Engineering Doctorates?

This article details a study which examines factors associated with enrollment and degree completion of female and male students in graduate engineering programs at a state university between 1990 and 2004. According to the study, women comprised 14% of graduate engineering students, but were as likely as men to complete doctoral degrees when factors associated with graduation were considered. Among U.S. citizens, women had higher rates of degree completion than men, while the opposite was...

Women in engineering: Statistical analysis of ACT data and proposed procedure to reverse trend

This paper analyzes historical ACT data over a 30-year span and correlates gender differences with ACT scores and expressed interest in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) related college majors. Results show that there is a significant discrepancy between the number of men and women students who expressed interest in engineering majors. The data also show that social influences such as the emergence of computer fields including computer gaming and the dot.com era have profound...

Women in Engineering: An Untapped Resource

This study was done over four phases including gathering human resources data, focus groups, interviews, and strategy sessions over 30 corporations employing engineers. Some of the obstacles for women engineers were examined such as the dilemma of being a woman and an engineer, paternalistic attitudes in the workplace, a lack of role models, and a lack of networking opportunities. Although these problems exist in other industries for women, the engineering field has such a low percentage of...

Women in Engineering: A Review of the 2013 Literature

2013 saw the publication of a large quantity of scholarly work relevant to the situation of women in engineering. Our review of the literature covered well over 100 publications, including books, major reports, and journal articles in publications representing a half dozen or more disciplines, including sociology, psychology, education, and business, to name a few. We searched for articles by examining major research databases and more than 70 journals that publish articles on gender and...

Women in Engineering: A Review of the 2009 Literature

Literature review assessing major themes in 2009 research-based articles related to women in engineering. Partial list of topics include an increased focus on effecting the K-12 pipeline, effective ways to talk to and engage with students, changing teacher perceptions about engineering, the significance of self-efficacy and coping mechanisms, the development and impact of cultural gender schemas, the impact of sexual politics and gender-typing in the workplace, and success factors for women...

Women in Engineering: A Review of the 2008 Literature

Literature review including 300 research-based articles related to women in engineering and women in the workforce. Topics include work-life balance, engineering career pathways, workforce issues, and the evolution of mentoring relationships and tools.

Women in Engineering: A Review of the 2007 Literature

Literature review including 123 primarily peer-reviewed cross-disciplinary articles. Review highlights data and trends, and workplace issues such as the gender pay gap, work-life balance, the glass ceiling, women in leadership and sexual harassment.

Women in Engineering: A Review of the 2006 Literature

Literature review including 168 primarily peer-reviewed research articles from engineering, education, psychology, management, sociology, science and technology studies, women's and gender studies, and general social sciences disciplines. Doctoral dissertations and books are excluded from the 2006 literature review. Review highlights topics such as mentoring, K-12 education, recruitment and persistence in undergraduate engineering programs, global aspects of women in engineering, and...

Women In Engineering: A Review of the 2005 Literature

Literature review including 224 primarily peer-reviewed articles, dissertation abstracts, and books, excluding the Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering. Review highlights seminal works and addresses events of the year, such as Harvard President Lawrence Summers inflammatory comments on the under representation of women in science and engineering. Topics include the impact of parenthood on working women, including evolution of the "mommy track" and an assessment...

Women in Engineering: A Review of the 2004 Literature

Society of Women Engineers (SWE) literature review assessing major themes in 2004 research-based articles related to women in engineering. Articles and dissertations reviewed cover subjects including girls’ science education; college science experiences and persistence; recruitment and retention in academia; mentoring; and gender, race, and ethnicity issues. Article includes extensive bibliography from 2004 publications.

Women in Engineering: A Review of the 2003 Literature

Society of Women Engineers (SWE) literature review assessing major themes in 2003 research-based articles related to women in engineering. Themes include: women engineers in the news; conferences & organizations; eminent women in engineering; gender differenes; and the academic engineering pipeline. Article includes extensive bibliography from 2003 publications.

Women in Engineering: 2011 Literature Review

Literature review assessing major themes in 2011 research-based articles related to women in engineering. Authors highlight a number of research projects on various aspects of the issues women face, including several major contributions involving large data sets and research projects of substantial ambition. Article includes extensive bibliography from the past year's publications.

Women in Engineering Technology: Where are they?

This paper discusses a student-led initiative implemented at Oregon Institute of Technology to remedy Oregon Tech’s lag of women behind men in enrollment in engineering technology with a diversity action grant obtained by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) student club. The ASME students, working in conjunction with the Society of Women Engineers (SWE) club, developed and administered a one-day conference designed specifically for female high school students regarding...

Women in Engineering Scholars Program

This paper discusses the National Science Foundation-funded Women in Engineering Scholars program, designed to encourage more women to pursue graduate degrees in engineering. The Scholars Program is administered through the Women in Applied Science and Engineering (WISE) Program, in the College of Engineering and Applied Science (CEAS) at Arizona State University. The Scholars program aims to increase participants' self-efficacy for attending graduate programs in engineering and to...

Women in engineering in Turkey - a large scale quantitative and qualitative examination

This article discusses the recent shift in Turkey from virtually no female participation in engineering to across-the-board proportions that dominate other industrialised countries within the 76 years of the founding of the Turkish Republic. This paper describes the largest known direct cross-sectional study of women in engineering in Turkey with over 800 participants. The study shows that women in Turkey choose engineering mainly because they enjoy the underlying mathematics and science....
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